Dataset: Generations and Gender Survey Sweden Wave 1


The Generations and Gender Survey (GGS) provides micro-level data with the aim of significantly improving the knowledge base for social science and policymaking in Europe and developed countries elsewhere.  
In Europe 2020, the European Union develops a strategy "to help us come out stronger from the crisis and turn the EU into a smart, sustainable and inclusive economy delivering high levels of employment, productivity and social cohesion". The economic crisis affects not only day-to-day decisions, but also fundamental choices at all stages of people's lives:  marriage and childbearing, the combination of employment and caring responsibilities for the young and the old, retirement, housing, and ageing well. The GGS has been developed to provide scientists with high-quality data to contribute scientifically grounded answers to these key policy questions. Survey content focuses on intergenerational and gender relations between people, expressed in care arrangements and the organization of paid and unpaid work. Key feature of the survey are:  
- Cross-national comparability. In each country data is collected on the basis of a common international questionnaire and guidelines about the methodology. Data processing includes central harmonization of national datasets.  
- A broad age range. It includes respondents between the ages of 18 and 80.
- A longitudinal design. It has a panel design, collecting information on the same persons at three-year intervals.  
- A large sample size. It has an average of 9,000 respondents per country at Wave 1.
- A theory-driven and multidisciplinary questionnaire. It provides data for policy relevant research by demographers, economists, sociologists, social policy researchers, social psychologists and epidemiologists. The questionnaire is inspired by the theory of planned behavior.
- Possibility to combine the survey data with macro data provided by the GGP Contextual Database. This combination enables analyses of individuals and families in their cultural, economic, political, social and policy contexts.

Variable Groups

Document Description

Full Title

Generations and Gender Survey Sweden Wave 1

Alternative Title

GGS Sweden Wave 1

Identification Number


Date of Distribution



Working Version: GGS Wave 1 Version 4.3.1

Correction of some variables for Sweden. Please refer to "File Description" for information on Wave 1 Version 4.3.1.

Date: 2017

Guide To Codebook

In the field "Study Description", users can find metadata about surveys. This includes the distributors, keywords, abstract, and guidelines on the bibliographic citation.  
Country specific metadata include information on survey producers, methodology and processing. This information was provided by the GGP-country teams, based on a metadata grid with pre-structured questions. Links to relevant references (e.g., working papers and questionnaires) are also provided.  

The field "Data Files Description" provides metadata about the data file, such as file contents, missing values, as well as changes across different GGS versions.

The field "Variable Description" provides information on each variable, such as question text, descriptions of country specific categories and variables, universe (i.e., subset of respondents to whom the question was asked), country specific deviations to GGS routing, descriptions of the ways in which consolidated and derived variables are calculated. Variables are ordered according to the sections of the GGS codebook.

This is the reason why the total no. of variables in the documentation is smaller than the total number of variables in the SPSS and STATA files.

Full Title



Name Affiliation Abbreviation Role
Arianna Caporali Institut national d'études démographiques (INED) AC

Study Description

Full Title

Generations and Gender Survey Sweden Wave 1

Alternative Title

GGS Sweden Wave 1

Parallel Title

Svenska familjer i tiden

Identification Number


Authoring Entity

Name Affiliation
Elizabeth Thomson Stockholm University Demography Unit (SUDA)
Gunnar Andersson Stockholm University Demography Unit (SUDA)


Name Affiliation Abbreviation Role
Stockholm University Demography Unit SUDA Development and management
Linnaeus Center for Social Policy and Family Dynamics in Europe SPaDE Development and management
Statistics Sweden Survey Unit Sampling, data collection and production

Date of Production


Funding Agency/Sponsor

Name Abbreviation Role Grant
Swedish Research Council VR 349-2007-8701
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond RJ 10-0527:1
Swedish Research Council VR 349-2007-8701
Swedish Research Council VR 349-2007-8701

Data Distributor

Name Affiliation Abbreviation
Institut national des études démographiques - 133 boulevard Davout 75980 Paris Cedex 20, France. INED
Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute - Lange Houtstraat 19, NL-2511 CV The Hague, The Netherlands NIDI


Name Affiliation Abbreviation
Stockholm University Demography Unit SUDA

Bibliographic Citation

United Nations 2005. Generations & Gender Programme: Survey Instruments. New York and Geneva: UN, 2005.

List of Keywords

Date of Collection

Start End Cycle
2012-04 2013-04 Wave 1


Sweden  (SWE)

Geographic Coverage

The whole country.

Geographic Unit

Country (Sweden)

Unit of Analysis



Target Population: Individuals in Sweden age 18-79

Kind of Data

Survey data plus population register

Time Method


Data Collector

Statistics Sweden  (SCB)

Sampling Procedure

1. Sampling frame
1.1 Type of frame: Register of the Total Population (RTB)  
1.2  Frame coverage: The Frame (RTB) covers all individuals in Sweden covered by the civil registration. Statistics Sweden's RTB recieve daily updates from The Swedish Tax Agency.
1.3 Frame size: A subset of RTB, age 18-79 (7 128 847 individuals)
1.4 Level of units available: 7 128 847 individuals

2. Sampling method
2.1 Sampling method type: Proportional-to-size sampling with a simple random sampling (SI) within strata. (one-stage sampling; individual level)
2.2 Sampling stage definition
- PSU: individual
2.3 Sampling stage size
- PSU: individuals
2.4 Unit selection: individuals
2.5 Final stage unit selection: individuals
2.6 Within household unit selection: out of scope
2.7 Stratification: The frame is divided into 8 strata by sex (male, female), age (18-49, 50-79) and residence (three major cities, other).
2.8 Sample size
- Starting size sample: 18000 individuals
- Aimed total size at Wave 1: 18000 individuals
- Aimed total size at Wave 3: NA
2.9 Estimated Non-response
- Yearly attrition: NA
- Non response measures: The total non response rate for Wave 1 is 45,4 % (excluding overcoverage). The non respose rate is calculated as follows: number of non-respondents / (the sample size-number of overcoverage units). The overcoverage is negligible in this survey.
- Within household non-responses measures: out of scope

Mode of Data Collection

- Telephone interview (CATI WinDATI at Statistics Sweden) and Registers for information on: family of origin, current partner, children, partner history, fertility intentions, education, employment, occupation and income (respondent and current partner).  
- Self-administered postal questionnaire or online alternative for information on: household economy, household work, decision making, social and economic exchange, Health and Wellbeing, values, beliefs, Subjective norms, and intentions.

Type of Research Instrument

Structured questionnaire in Swedish CATI-based.

Characteristics of Data Collection Situation

1. Interviewers
1.1 Total number of interviewers: 59
1.2 Number of interviewers in the field: All interviewers were located in Stat Sweden's CATI-center
1.3 Network organization: See 1.2
1.4 Working arrangement of interviewers: Part-time (0.50-0.80 of full-time)
1.5 Payment of interviewers: Monthly salary

2. Interviewer training:   
2.1 General interviewing: Each interviewer have an initial one-week basic course. After one year the interviewers has a continuation course.
2.2 Survey specific:In this survey, all interviewers followed a theoretical study-specific training.
2.3 Length: 12 hours (theory and practice)
2.4 Control of performance: Monitoring (during the education phase) and control and feedback based on process data (paradata) from the CATI-system.
2.5 Interviewer survey: NO

3. Contact protocols
3.1 Advance letter: All sample units recieved an advance letterr.
3.2 Cold contacts: Telephone
3.3 Scheduling / scattering: Yes. Call attempts were distributed over all weekdays, weekends (including Sundays) and during the days across morning, afternoon and evening (until 9 p.m.).
3.4 Contact history: DK
3.5 Min number of contacts: 1
3.6 Max number of contacts: 12

4. Questionnaire localization
4.1 Validation: Expert review of the questionnaire by Statistics Sweden's Cognitive Methods Unit
4.2 Pre-test: Yes. Pilot study using a 400-person sampling frame with the same design as the full survey.
4.3 Length of interview: The average time for the telephone interviews was 26 minutes and 28 seconds.

Actions to Minimize Losses

1.  Dealing with nonresponse
1.1 Screening: DK
1.2 Refusal conversion: Yes, in special follow-up processes.
1.3 Incentives: No

2. Tracking of sampled units
2.1 Respondent contact information: Address, telephone numbers, Id-identification including family members.
2.2 Other contact information: Statistics Sweden is allowed to get contact information from several other authorties.
2.3 Cards: No
2.4 Additional surveys: No
2.5 Administrative records: Contact information from employers from Register of Statement of incomes.


The estimation procedure generates calibration weights based on the inclusion probabilities and auxiliary information (mainly from RTB).

Response Rate

Frequency of final disposition codes:
I = Complete interview:  9688 interviews, response rate =  9688 / (18000-326) = 58,8 %
P = Partial interview: NA
NE = Not eligible: 326
NC = Non-contact: 3210, non-contact rate = 3210 / (18000-326) = 18,2 %
R = Refusal: 3939 (refusal rate = 3939 / (18000-326) = 22,3 %
O = Other non-response: 860, "other non-response rate" = 326 / (18000-326) = 4,9 %
UC = Unknown eligibility, contacted/: NA
UN = Unknown eligibility, non-contact: NA                                                              
eC = Estimated proportion of contacted cases of unknown eligibility that are eligible: NA
eN = Estimated proportion of non-contacted cases of unknown eligibility that are eligible: NA

Completeness of Study Stored

The GGS core questionnaire was slightly adapted to fit the Swedish context; because of time and budget constraints some questions were dropped or modified. The data collection was done by means of telephone and postal questionnaires. The postal questionnaire contained questions on issues such as household division of labor and value items, it was sent to respondents after the telephone interview was completed. Respondents were offered an online version of the postal questionnaire. Some data were collected from registers. In the data file that is stored at and distributed by NIDI a number of variables have been aggregated or dropped. This is due to legal constraints as imposed by Statistics Sweden. Access to these variables in their original un-aggregated format can be granted to researchers associated with and located at SUDA and ARC.


In order to access micro data files, users have to sign and submit a Statement of affiliation, confidentiality and acceptable usage. They also have to submit a title and abstract of their research project. They can use the data for all their research projects, except for datasets from Australia, Belgium and Norway. Users of these datasets need to submit a new application form if they want to use the data in a different research project. The access rights from Wave 1 data are NOT transferred to the Wave 2 data. Wave 1 data users need to submit a new application form to gain access to Wave 2 datasets.

Access Authority

Name Affiliation E-mail address Universal Resource Identifier
UNECE Population Unit - Palais des Nations - CH-1211 Geneva 10 - Switzerland. Tel: +41 22 917 24 77 - fax: +41 22 917 01 07

Citation Requirement

In any work emanating from research based on the Generations and Gender Survey micro-data, I will acknowledge that these data were obtained from the GGP Data Archive and refer to the publication that describes the model survey instruments: United Nations 2005. Generations & Gender Programme: SurveyInstruments. New York and Geneva: UN, 2005

Deposit Requirement

Users of GGS micro-data are required to send any research papers based on the Generations and Gender Survey micro-data or aggregate tabulations to the Population Activities Unit of the UN Economic Commission for Europe, for inclusion in the GGP publications archive.


In order to access, it is necessary to subscribe to the GGP Data User Space, and to follow the instructions available on the GGP data access webpage.


The authors and producers bear no responsibility for the uses of the GGS data, or for interpretations or inferences based on these uses. The producers accept no liability for indirect, consequential or incidental damages or losses arising from use of the data collection, or from the unavailability of, or break in access to the service for whatever reason.

Related Materials


Other References Note

Swedish country presentations at the GGP International Working Group Meetings

Data Files Description

File Name


Contents of Files

This is the reason why the total no. of variables in the Nesstar data file is smaller than the total number of variables in the SPSS and STATA files.

Variables are ordered according to the sections of the GGS codebook: Household, Children, Partnerships, Household Organisation and Partnership Quality, Parents and Parental Home, Fertility, Health and Well-Being, Respondent's Activity and Income, Partner's Activity and Income, Household Possessions, Income and Transfers, Value Orientations and Attitudes, Interviewers' report.
The variables begin with a letter designating the wave of data collection ("a" for the first wave likewise "b" for the second wave). We have attempted to keep the names of variables the same across the waves, and all the new variables would be identified as follows ["wave letter"]n e.g.  bn301.  
Although we encourage the countries to strictly follow the GGS Questionnaire, countries might implement a question that differs to a considerable extent from the GGS Questionnaire. In this case either we add country specific response values, or we introduce a country specific variable.  
Country specific values are added when the question follows the model questionnaire, but the answers are not at all or partly compatible. They are at least 4 digits long (F4 format) and begin with the country code: e.g., Australia 2401. Hence, the country code, as an example, for Australia is 24.  
A country specific variable is introduced when the question differs from the model questionnaire albeit measuring the same concept. This kind of variables is identified with a suffix given by the country code plus a number, e.g., Australia a119_2401.
In order to have an overview of GGS country code, please refer to the variable "acountry".

Overall Case Count


Overall Variable Count


Type of File

Nesstar 200801

Place of File Production

The file is produced centrally by the Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute (NIDI, The Netherlands), in collaboration with the Survey Department of the "Institut national d'études démographiques" (INED, France).

Extent of Processing Checks

The data is submitted in an already pre-harmonised form. It is prepared and organised according to the GGS standards.  
Harmonisation aims at achieving a clear and comparable format of the GGS micro-data files that would be adequate for cross-country comparison.  The harmonisation procedure basically is composed of:
1. Label checks  
This step makes sure that all the variables are named the same across the countries and refer to a particular question in the GGS Questionnaire. Also the value labels are checked. They should be the same across GGS datasets.  
2. Dealing with grids
The GGS Questionnaire holds several grids of either event history information or members of the household. Such data needs to be harmonized with specific attention to order and logical consistency of grid-rows (be either household members or events such as births). In data sense each row of the grid is represented by variable name followed by a subscripted number ("_#"). Each subscript thus represents one household member or one event. Part of the grid harmonization is grid sorting. Grid rows are sorted according to pre-defined key. For example in the household grid, the household members are sorted according to their relationship to the respondent i.e. the relation to respondent variable (ahg3_# or bhg3_# ). Respondents would appear, first, followed by their partners and children if any and then followed by other household members. As there may be more then one child (or other relative) living in the household they also would need to be sorted. In the case of the household grid, age is used as the secondary sorting key (starting with the oldest person to the youngest).
3. Routing
Routing check ensures that the structure of underlying data set matches the structure of the GGS questionnaire. Its main goal is to code any given variable in the dataset to either a valid response, nonresponse or skip as indicated in the questionnaire. Consequently, the indicated skip in the quetionnaire is represented with a system missing code (. in STATA, sysmis in SPSS), while the missing information for other reasons is coded into non-applicable/no response (i.e. codes 7, 8, 9 in SPSS or .a, .b, .c in STATA).  
4. Consolidation  
The process consolidates the information scattered over several variables into a single one. The consolidation procedure is carried out in the Children Section, the Partnership Section and the Parents and Parental Home Section.
5. Imputation  
Due to its sensitive nature, the respondents are reluctant to share income information with the interviewer. In order to be able to use income information in a cross country comparative study and not to loose too many observations in the process it is necessary to impute the approximately correct distribution of the income variable in each country.  
6. Calculation of derived variables
We calculate derived variables out of the following variables:
- grid variables (i.e., household grid, children grid, and partnership history grid); the codebook starts with the constructed variables that sum the key socio-demographic characteristics of the respondent.
- month and year variables,  
- hours and minutes variables,
- frequency and unit variables.  
Occupation variables are recoded into ISCO-88 1 digit.
Explanations of the ways in which consolidated and derived variables are obtained, are available under the field "Note" of the "Variable Description" sections.
For a more detailed and technical procedure please refer to the Data Cleaning and Harmonisation Guidelines.

Missing Data

The following missing values have been assigned:
- 6, 96, 996, etc. = Unknown (only for consolidated variables in the group "administrative variables")
- 7, 97, 997, etc. = Don't know
- 8, 98, 998, etc. = Refusal
- 9, 99, 999, etc. = Not-applicable/no response


Harmonized dataset, GGS Sweden Wave1, version 4.3.1.


Variables corrected with Version 4.3.1 (December 2017)
- aregion (correction for Sweden regions)
- a206 (now available also for Sweden)

Variables corrected with Version 4.3.
- fertintent (no more ambiguous labelling)
- a1101 (corrected error in coding)
- aweight (now available also for NLD CZE SWE POL)
- aregion (now available also for HUN)
- aplace (now available also for HUN)
- a5112 (corrected routing error for ROU)
- a5113 (corrected routing error for ROU)
- a5114 (corrected routing error for ROU)
- a5115 (corrected routing error i for ROU)
- a211b_ (corrected error for POL & GEO)
- ankids (corrected error for POL & GEO)
- a1008mnth (corrected error for NGR & BEL)
- a108 (now available for SWE)
- a109_1 (now available for SWE)
- a109_2 (now available for SWE)
- a149 (now available for SWE)
- a309 (now available for SWE)
- aregion (now available for SWE)
- a620_ (corrected error for DEU & CZE)
- a402 (corrected error for POL)
- a149 (corrected error routing error in NOR)
- a344 (corrected error routing error in NOR)
- a256_ (corrected error for POL & GEO)

IMPROVEMENTS INTRODUCED on the 4th of November 2015 (V.4.2.2)
- a550: corrected

IMPROVEMENTS INTRODUCED on the 7th of July 2015 (V.4.2.1)
- aweight: now available
- a123 and a936_*: corrected
- aregion: addition of category labels.

FIRST DATASET RELEASED: V. 4.2. (June 2015).


Before publication in Nesstar GGS micro data files are further processed so as to ease online data browsing and analysing.
We delete variables having all system missings.


Metadata Index

This is the Metadata Index for a Nesstar Server.
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Click the "Explore Dataset" button to open the dataset.